Revising and Editing

revising and editing what’s the first thing that comes to mind when you think about revising a paper many students will come up with responses like I hate rewriting I already did the best that I could with my first draft or I wait until the last minute to write my paper so there’s never time for revision even worse some students see revision as a punishment for not doing well on their first draft well I’m here to tell you that revision is not a punishment at all but a crucial part of writing that shouldn’t be dreaded Ernest Hemingway revised the last page of A Farewell to Arms 39 times before he was happy with it 39 times that’s because most good writers use the process of revision to make improvements to their writings in fact most writers been significantly more time on a revision process than on the initial writing process what you see in published text books novels poetry and almost every other type of writing is usually the result of not the writers first draft but of careful revision through the adding deleting substituting and rearranging of material until it suits the writers purpose and audience as close to perfectly as possible this should show you two things one even great writers are capable of bad writing and two great writers keep at it until they get it right revising can be very time-consuming process writers can spend weeks months and even years on working or on revisions this is often why you’ll see multiple editions of works being published many authors continuously find ways to improve their writings I hope that all of you will keep this in mind in working on your own revisions this week try not to see the process is an annoying yet mandatory task required by your writing teachers instead look at it as a chance to polish and perfect your papers like the pros do editing is also an important step of the rewriting process some students confuse these two steps or believe them to be the same thing keep in mind that while revising consists of adding deleting substituting and rearranging material to better suit the author’s purpose and audience editing is simply the reviewing and fixing of grammatical mechanical and stylistic errors that may have been overlooked the first time around while equally important editing is typically not as time-consuming or complicated as revision both revising and editing typically require several different cycles revising a paper for form clarifying the message and reworking to reach a particular audience usually comes in the early cycles of rewriting while the stylistic concerns of adding commas correcting spelling errors and rewording through editing come later also try to remember that both of these stages don’t necessarily need to be thought of as the steps that come at the end of a writing process many writers revise and edit as they go writing a sentence or paragraph here then returning to revise a previous sentence or paragraph as they attempt to mold their writing to suit their purpose and audience finding grammatical mechanical errors along the way however all good writers return back to these steps again and again until they are satisfied with the end result though the rest of your essays in this course won’t be as closely monitored for revising and editing as your first essay it is important to set aside time for these steps and everything you write whether you like to write quickly and heavily revise and edit later or revise and edit as you go leaving you with less to fix later so how do you complete these steps the suggestions presented in the rest of this video can be used to guide you through the entire rewriting stage keep in mind that these do not have to be followed in this particular order but I do suggest at least trying it this way for your first attempt in future revisions you may choose to complete some of these tasks at the same time or you may run through each of them separately actually become a more experienced writer you will find the ways that work for you you can choose to print out your draft and write revisions directly on the paper or you can use a word processor to make your changes the most important parts of revision work to redefine an author’s purpose and audience reassess the message reshape the discourse and realign their meaning with linguistic forms since getting your message across is the most important part of writing a paper I suggest starting with finding the purpose first one piece of advice I like to give my students regarding rewriting is to not try to do it all at once instead I suggest doing a little revising here and there and then returning back to your work a day or two later and reading it over again oftentimes you will be able to find further ways to clarify your message every time you come back to it another piece of advice is one I’ve been stressing all semester long have someone else read over your paper to check for clarity check to see if the message that they receive from your writing lines up with the message that you intended to get across if not ask what parts through the law course again though this past week we had the benefit of a more formal peer review to get you started in this direction you won’t have this advantage with every piece you write I highly suggest requesting your classmates or friends reviews on all of your future writings a point that you tried to make that you may have thought to be obvious for example may have been missed completely by your reader defining your audience is also important first think about who you are writing your paper for then look over your paper again to get a feel for the tone that you use a paper used for entertainment purposes may sound light and cheery and may even use humor to keep its audience engaged a professional scholarly paper typically has above average readers as its audience here the author is likely to use a higher level of vocabulary and diction whatever your audience may be it’s important to use a tone appropriate to them and to stay consistent throughout here are some questions to use as the checklist when revising for your purpose and audience what’s the most important thing I want to say about my subject Who am I writing this paper for what would my reader want to know about the subject what does my reader already know about it why do I think the set it is worth writing about will my reader think the paper was worth reading what verb explains what I’m trying to do in this paper for example tell a story compare X&Y; describe Z etc after you’ve done your best to clarify your purpose and audience work towards reshaping your paper in a way that makes the most sense and get your message across to the reader as clearly as possible make an outline of your paper and check to see if the organization is still conducive to your overall purpose sometimes even if you make an outline prior to writing your paper you may find that your original structure didn’t work as well as you thought it would this step of revising consists of adding subtracting substituting or rearranging whole chunks of material until you come as close to perfect as you can with the ultimate goal of getting your message across to the reader as clearly as possible concerning overall organization ask yourself the following questions how many specific points did I make about my subject did I overlap or repeat any points did I leave any points out or add some that aren’t relevant to the main idea how many paragraphs did I use to talk about each point why did I talk about them in this order should the order be changed how did I get from one point to the next what signposts did I give the reader after you’ve done your best to correct the overall structure of your paper do the same thing for each individual paragraph you can improve paragraphs by one adjusting the topic sentence to adding deleting substituting or rearranging supporting details 3 improving transitions for clarity or for reorganizing sentences to change where the emphasis lies think back to our previous lesson on paragraphing and make sure each sentence is somehow related to the others delete any material that isn’t for every paragraph ask yourself these questions what job is this paragraph supposed to do how does it relate to the paragraph before and after it what’s the topic idea will my reader have trouble finding it how many sentences did it take to develop the topic idea can I substitute better examples reasons or details how well does the paragraph hold together how many levels of generality does it have are the sentences different lengths and types do I need transitions when I read the paragraph out loud does it flow smoothly finally work on correcting any sentence problems that you may come across first check to make sure each sentence can be considered a complete sentence oftentimes inexperienced writers may accidentally write sentence fragments run-ons or comma splices that might not be caught without a rereading at this point you can also go ahead and check for sentence variety if every sentence is written in the same way you might bore your reader writing that uses sentence variety is likely to come off as more professional and your reader will know that you worked hard and spent time organizing your writing in the clearest way possible instead of just quickly jotting down your ideas at the last minute as you’re doing this go ahead and check for repetition as well you don’t want to use the same words over and over again or it will look like you didn’t put any effort into your writing consider using a thesaurus is necessary right clicking on a word in Microsoft Word gives you the option of finding synonyms for it which makes this step rather easy another method to consider is cutting out the lard a term that scholar Richard Linum uses to refer to extra words and phrases that are unnecessary and may obscure the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph here’s an example from his book revising prose original I think that all I can usefully say on this point is that in the normal course of their professional activities social anthropologists are usually concerned with the third of these alternatives while the other two levels are treated as raw data for analysis and here’s the revision social anthropologists usually concentrate on the third alternative treating the other two as raw data this one is 15 words and stead of 44 giving it a large factor of 66% ask these questions of every sentence which sentences in my paper do I like the most the least can my readers see what I’m saying does the sentence contain lard that needs to be cut out can I combine these sentences with another one can I add adjectives and adverbs or find a more lively verb by now you have completed several different cycles of revision each with a separate reading of your draft first you read it to evaluate your overall message and the relationships established among the reader writer and subject next you read to test the overall organization of your paper and another reading you examine paragraph structure and another sentence construction and diction the final step is to clean up the surface features such as punctuation mechanics and spelling though most of you have a pretty firm grasp on these concepts some of you might benefit from a trip to the Writing Center you can also try reading your paper backwards to spot the more obvious mistakes such as spelling errors ask yourself the following questions after you edit did I check spelling and punctuation what kinds of words do I usually misspell what kind of punctuation problems do I usually have how does my paper end did I keep the promises I made to the reader at the beginning of the paper when I read the assignment again did I miss anything what do I like best about this paper and how can I improve my next paper this week your main task will be to revise and edit your papers I hope to see some significant revisions in your final drafts which is due by the end of the week at this point you will have practiced all of the steps of the writing process for this essay including prewriting outlining drafting revising and editing though we won’t spend as much time on each of these steps on future essays you should make sure to continue following these guidelines on your own now that you’ve got a better understanding of the writing process though you’re welcome to use the whatever board to work your classmates on reviews I hope that your confidence in your writing is starting to rise at this point get ready to celebrate the completion of your first essay and have a great week

Kategória: Uncategorized | A közvetlen link.

Vélemény, hozzászólás?

Az email címet nem tesszük közzé. A kötelező mezőket * karakterrel jelöltük